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Agriculture Economy – How Local Governments can help?

The new Local Government Act is in force now and the new administrative set up under this act is expected to take roots in a year time.  The new system has envisioned separate urban & rural council along with its associated concerns it certainly has certain advantages for the administration. Tehsil council being the representative of the rural areas only will have the opportunity to focus more on improving the rural economy. It’s important to see how the candidates and parties push the narrative during the campaign. Whether the understanding of the mandate and functions of the council is translated into the election campaign or only the National rhetoric will take the lead in the camping.  It’s more important that the potential candidate starts exploring the new Act and exploring various plans they may offer with respect to their functions during the campaign.

Agro-economy is the main source for the rural population however its productivity and profitability has caused some serious damage to the industry. The farmers are continuing just for the sake of living and not there are no much profits for a sustainable living for small farmers. For small farmers, due to the small holding size, there are limitations to various offers, though Govt has certain programs for small farmers. Going by the experience of the Netherlands and the challenges our small farmers facing, its time we turn to the co-operative culture. Co-Operative societies Act 1925 provides the legal structure for establishing and working of Co-Operatives however it needs certain amendments to make it compatible with the foregoing proposals.

Our prospective candidates for the Tehsil Councils should start pondering and developing solutions that may help the constituents (mainly farmers/growers) to get more with the less. A Tehsil council may help them by way of providing guarantees for the cooperative (mind the conflict of interest) in securing credit. Financially assisting in improving irrigation systems, setting up solar tube wells, setting up warehouses for the common purpose and affording them opportunities of better management of crops in post-harvest and in market access. Value of money can be increased if such services are provided to the co-operatives instead of individual farmers. On top of the requirements of the Co-operative Societies Act, a Tehsil Council may put up some other conditions.

Let’s take a case of a Tehsil Council encouraging Co-Operatives and has set up its own budget and policy for the support purpose. The policy is such that it set up certain mandatory requirements to be full filled. Like the appointment of qualified persons, periodic soil/water tests, periodic levelling and boundary verifications etc. Only such Co-Operatives shall be eligible who are registered with the Registrar of Co-operative Societies and have minimum twenty-five acres of land (preferably compact) under its management for the purpose of farming. The members of the Co-Cooperative (Say 5-7) serve as the Board members and they exercise their authority through resolutions. They appoint a qualified person as Farming Manager, Wearhouse & Marketing Manager and any other administrative staff or workers required time to time.  By resolution, they authorize the Farming Manager to represent & protect their interests whenever attending the meeting with the Agriculture Department for seeking new technology or seeds or other farming assistance, Tehsil Council in securing support, Financial institutes in securing credit and so on. The Farming Manager so appointed shall serve as Principle accounting officer and keep a record of all the directions and decisions of the board, Inventory of the Co-Operative/Farm, all the expenditures occurred for the production of any crop.

After harvesting, the Wearhouse & Marketing Manager shall protect the interests of the Co-Operative by preserving the crop, adding value to it and adequately marketing and collecting all proceeds. Under Punjab Agriculture Market Regulatory Authority Act a grower or association of them can set up their own market without registration requirements. After receiving all the costs and incomes from the sales of crops, the Farming Manager shall complete the report of expenditures & incomes for the season and share the profits/Loss equitably among all the members of the Co-Operative as per their share of Landholdings/Investment. As a Policy of the tehsil council, it shall require such a report to be submitted to it for its analysis and taxation purposes.

Co-Operative seeking support shall remain valid for a Minimum period of 5 years. Any interests in the land subjected to the Co-operative transferred by virtue of inheritance or sale shall remain subject to the holding of the Co-Operative till the completion of the validity of the Co-Operative. Co-Operatives made to work as such under the support policy of a Tehsil Council can increase the utilization of various assets and thus increasing productivity and efficiency. Qualified Managers appointed can speed up the pace of knowledge & technology transfer. Deployment of qualified persons in the farming will increase the productivity and efficiency of the sector which we certainly need the most. Currently, our farmers are not educated info to take advantage of the modern technologies and financially it’s not feasible for every small farmer to deploy qualified persons or special technology or equipment. However, when small farmers join hands and increase their landholding subject to common purpose, they become capable of appointing a qualified person to take care of all of their lands and also can afford to adopt new equipment’s. The Economy of scales plays its role.

With all these efforts, the Tehsil council where it will increase the income of its constituent and their spending ability, it will raise more revenues directly and indirectly. Under such a support package, the council may either agree for a fixed percentage share in the profits of Co-Operative or it may subject all Co-Operatives within its jurisdiction under a special income tax. The increasing culture of the Co-Operatives will reduce the spending of their constituents in procuring sperate machinery or tube wells. The common farming practice will increase the utilization of the inventory. We as a country need to improve the efficiency & productivity in our agriculture sector and solution to it is clusters & Co-Operatives supported and encouraged by the Local Governments.

Can the prospective candidates & Party Leadership focus more on their mandate & functions of the LGs in the upcoming campaign session and less on the national rhetoric?


Featured Image Credits: Institute of Entrepreneurship Development

Design for Mobility, Safety and protection from Disaster – Legal provisions in Pakistan


Communities evolve continuously to adapt to the changing needs of their habitats. When it comes to housing and infrastructure (the manmade environment), it is our Architects and Engineers who are to play the key role in assessing the current & future needs of the users in this environment and to meet such needs through their design. A man-made environment which doesn’t provide an ease in mobility or safety against various natural and human disasters will minimize its utility, thus causing a loss in its economic value.

How easy is it for you if tomorrow you have to use a wheelchair and reach out to your office desk, Movie Theater and for the grocery shopping? Or maybe to reach out to school or a campus as a student or as a teacher? Or maybe to reach a court either to argue for your client or maybe to appear yourself for a case? And how about going into your bank or your relative’s home or for a dinner in some restaurant? Can you imagine how difficult life can be if you are wheelchair bound? Infrastructure designed by architects and engineers can help to ease mobility in all such instances. Unfortunately, man-made design in Pakistan does not allow for this. I will not be surprised if many of the practising Architects, town planners and engineers are not even aware of The Accessibility Code of Pakistan 2006. This is a code in place by Federal Govt setting out the minimum standards and guidelines to assist the designers to engender an environment accommodating the disabled (like those making use of the wheelchair). It has been in force for over a decade, during which a lot of infrastructures has been developed, none of which accommodates the disabled.

In a community, all segments of life need consideration in the design of its infrastructure, to enable better design facilitating all, to be engendered. By ignoring the mobility of the disabled (particularly those making use of a wheelchair) we are simply expressing disregard and contempt for the disabled and in fact, we are cutting them away from the community’s shared life. Schools & Universities are the largest hosts of a population within a single set of infrastructure development. How many of our schools and campuses are designed with all due consideration of mobility and firefighting/ safety? The school where you drop your kids in the morning, do they have wheelchair access or do they have firefighting support available in an emergency? Our schools, hospitals and other public spaces of assembly should be designed very carefully considering all such matters. Now as the Design guides and regulations have been put in place, the designer should be more compliant with these requirements. The regulatory regime of construction is much devolved to the autonomous institutions, Development authorities and the District governments to regulate the construction industry within their jurisdiction and it is in their mandate to enforce any regulation issued by Federal Govt in this regard.

Construction safety is still one big concern and the construction industry has not made any significant progress in this area. We are losing many workers every year due to a poor workplace safety management system. While putting more resources and efforts to manage workplace safety, we need to move upstream in the development process to eliminate or to reduce the construction hazards to as low as practically impossible. On the upstream, planning & design stage, we can eliminate or reduce the number of risks that otherwise may pose serious hazards during construction or post-construction maintenance. Some countries have already moved on to Design for safety in the development process in an effort to eliminate the hazards of under-construction and built environment right from the planning & design stage.

The Planning Commission of Pakistan has adopted such an approach in view of eliminating or reducing the effects of man-made or natural disasters. In a circular of November 2010, it directed to incorporate the measures adopted for disaster risk reduction at project planning, design and implementation project in PC-I & PC-II. Owing to the man-made disasters, the NDMA & the Pakistan Engineering Council have produced a Building Code of Pakistan (Fire safety provisions) 2016 to be applied to buildings, those which have been built and those in the process of construction. To ensure compliance, PEC has amended the Construction and Operation of Engineering work bye-laws 1987 to render non-compliance of Fire Safety provisions to be a violation of Professional engineering works. Fire safety provisions guide infrastructure designers to plan in order to avoid fire outbreaks and to allow for the easy management of fire, in instances of an accident. These provisions apply to all existing and new buildings. A three-year period has been given to existing buildings to comply with these provisions while new buildings are required to comply instantly. The results of this implementation have yet to be seen, but it is imperative for all those involved to accord greater respect to human life and the regulations guiding their work, as it is only through compliance, that a change in the pre-existing practice of infrastructure design will be engendered. This change is likely to not only be a beneficial aid to the infrastructure of Pakistan but will help streamline the attitudes of those involved, to make the sanctity of human life, a reserved priority.

(This opinion was 1st published by LEAP Pakistan and is accessible from here.)

Regulation or Business

Shall Govt be engaged in business? Is the question I been thinking about lately. I have reached to a conclusion that YES – yes Govt shall do business and as such that business profits can supplement its expenditures and in proportion reduce the tax collection from the lower income people currently in tax net. The more govt grow its business the more it can raise the bar of taxable income. I believe that Govt’s primary job is, and shall be, regulation/administration and not the business. Then how shall govt do the business?  – Singapore Model. Pakistan Govt shall follow the Singapore Model. PTI’s Asad Umar, in PTI’s Economic Policy – GE 2013, has highlighted a similar intention under “Institution Reform Emergency” for Govt businesses if PTI forms the Federal Govt.  In his TV talk he referred to Singapore’s Temasek & Malaysia’s Khazanah as an example.

Temasek Holdings is a Singapore Govt’s Holding & investment company managing companies & businesses of the govt with current net portfolio value of S$ 242 billion. Before Temasek Holdings, govt used to manage the govt owned companies just like our companies today. Temasek holding is a company registered just like any other private holding company in Singapore and pays taxes like any other company and is governed under the same rules as other companies in Singapore. This arrangement provides a level playing field to all be it government affiliated company or else. Temasek is protected to the extent of appointment of its 14 board members,  its CEO and its past reserves under the constitution of Singapore. The executive authority of the country, and the sole shareholder of the company, Ministry of finance, has absolutely zero involvement in Temasek’s investment, divestment or other business decisions.  Just like any other company, Temasek’s sole shareholder, ministry of finance, has right to appoint or remove a board member but with concurrence of the President of Singapore. Board also needs concurrence of the President to appoint or remove the CEO.  A very strong constraint is placed by constitution on right of the govt to company’s money even though govt is the sole shareholder.  The day new cabinet swear-in , all reserves of Temasek on that day become “Past Reserves” and new govt or current govt cannot draw any amount from the past reserves of the company thus protecting the national assets even if there is a change in govt.

In Pakistan, our state-owned companies and enterprises are managed by the state to a variety of degree from one company to the other. I have Listed 108 companies – and there are even more – and they all have officers from Civil Services of Pakistan at various roles – From Board Member to the Managing Director of the company. Where it attracts the conflict of interest, it also overlaps the state role simultaneously as regulator and the business operator. Separation of the commercial interests of the state from its regulatory responsibilities is not something new to Pakistan or either to the Govt itself. Government Holdings (private) ltd company was established in 2000 under Ministry of  Petroleum and Natural Resources with intent to separate “regulatory & commercial interests”.

Our Govt shall also establish, as sole shareholder, independent holding company (ies) so as to manage the affairs of Govt’s commercial interests separately from its regulatory responsibilities. Considering our political culture, the best way possible is to create such holding company through an act of parliament, say a State Owned Enterprise Holding & Management Company (Establishment) Act, and place it under all regulatory requirements in force for the time being. Appointment of the board members can follow the procedure as adopted in KP Ehtesaab commission. A joint search & scrutiny committee of the parliament can be mandated to find and appoint the board members for the holding company and the board subsequently can appoint CEO of the company. The company so created shall be given complete freedom to any investment, divestment and any other business decision completely independent from any state institution/office and subject to the regulatory requirements in place.  Taking the “Past reserve protection”  philosophy as in Singapore’s constitution, such a protection be placed on assets of the company so created and on its subsidiaries to prevent any direct or indirect encroachment from the current govt in office.  In this act shall also empower the company so created to have power to appoint board members to its subsidiaries and any such power essential to ensure efficient and transparent corporate governance in all subsidiary companies. The same act shall clearly define and place the limits to the relationship of Govt as sole shareholder and the holding company as some second layer of security exclusively being the Public money at risk.

Another act of parliament, say State Owned Enterprise Holding & Management Company (Taking over enterprises/companies) Act can be introduced to transfer existing companies under various ministries/divisions under the management control of the newly established holding company. This act may facilitate the transfer of commercial entities along with their assets & liabilities in stage wise manner so as to have reasonable time for holding company to prepare for the new administration. Although current Companies Act have provisions on relationship of holding company & its subsidiary, however here being a public companies the act can be more elaborative and rigorous to set out the limits to which holding company can exercise its powers in terms of assets and liabilities of the subsidiary company.

I suggest that our provincial govts can also shift to the concept of service provision or management companies to corporatize and to improve the service delivery by creating and playing in a competitive environment. Separating corporate interests of the govts can significantly reduce the chance of abuse of merit and corrupt practice thus improving overall transparent working environment and generating efficient revenue streams for the govts. I believe such an arrangement can also reasonably attract the private and foreign investments in state-owned but privately held companies and contribute to the growth of the company and economy.

Sharif Governance

“Punjab speed” attributed to Mian Shahbaz Sharif’s style and speed of work in his recent Chinese visit is not something new. We are all aware that he is the person who can fly over from one place to another as soon as a news break and sometimes his “Notice” may issue even faster than his own speed. “Mua-ttal kr do” to everyone is the stone always in his hand to throw at any face he couldn’t find around during his “surprise” visitor the face fail to bring satisfaction to Shahbaz on service delivery. Shahbaz is the legend to take notice for any gang rape, brutal murder, cutting away body parts by powerful, throwing dogs on poor, visiting sasta bazars, reaching out to flood victims, and so on. There is no doubt that his style is appreciated by “victim of the day” on the same day but does it leave any lasting effect? Shall every victim wait for the “Messiah” in the form of Shahbaz sharif or the intuitions and departments under Shahbaz shall exercise their due responsibility? How much Shahbaz has done to bring such institutions and departments to accountability for their negligence again and again?

Just 2 days ago (July/Aug 2016) Mian Shahbaz sharif was very disappointed with the level of facilities in Lahore General Hospital nearly at a 10-minute drive from his house. Can you recall who the Health minister in Punjab is? Since 2008 PMLN is in the Govt. and after 8 years of governance here Mian Shahbaz sharif is still disappointed. Is it 1st time he visited the General Hospital and disappointed? NO –It’s NOT, he has visited a number of times before and did the same trick what he did this time – MUA-TTAL.

Thanks to Bilal Numan (@bilalnuman) on twitter who collected visits of Mian Shahbaz sharif to this facility and put them in order to show how many time Shahbaz sharif has visited this facility. Not a single time he learned a lesson to re-structure his governance of health institutions but always remain limited to a particular health facility and relied on the surprise visit and Notices. Probably he thinks everything is fine in the governance system but the people other than him are just incompetent?

The Nation reported on 31st March 2010 about the surprise visit of Shahbaz sharif (YES – 6 years and 4 months ago) to LGH and suspended Medical Superintend Dr. Iqbal Kazmi and ordered Secretary Health Fawad Hassan Fawad to improve health facility within 24 hours. During the same visit, he also sought a report to establish a new neuro hospital as he realised that a large number of patients need a new facility. I am not sure of that realization was buried with same “Speed” as he realized its need. Another visit of Shahbaz is reported in September 2011 where the MS was lucky enough to be warned only but not suspended. Shahbaz sharif has visited the same facility on a number of occasions and accordingly secretary health has been paying surprise visits to this facility.

In November 2014 Secretary Health suspended MS and other 4 Drs for negligence in their duty. In February 2016, secretary health has also paid a surprise visit to this facility and showed his satisfaction.

Muattali or problems in Administration of hospitals are not limited to Lahore Only. Coming down to Aziz Bhatti Shaeed Hospital, Gujrat you can witness an interesting play of MS-around-chair since 2014. Dr. Tahir Naveed was suspended in July 2014 then in July 2015 another MS Dr. Mian Wajid was suspended. After this suspension Dr. Tahir Abbas was given additional charge of MS and a  new MS Dr Shabbir Hussain was bothered to appoint only for three months and Dr Tahir Abbas again given the additional charge. Then came in Dr Sherl Ali Khan for a period of 8 motnhs and taken over by Dr. Shahid Maroof. Aziz Bhatti Shahee Hospital, Gujrat  had 7 MS during a period of 32 months.  (Updated on 27-3-2017)

Even after all such dramatic entries of surprise visits and suspensions by Chief Minister, Health secretary for over 6 years, if there is no significant improvement in service delivery then its certainly a time where Govt. shall think of something different than just surprise visits. This one hospital which frequently witnessed the surprise visits of the high ups and yet even after 8 years of governance it still disappointed the Chief Minister. Imagine all those health facilities in other districts where they couldn’t get surprise visits, what will be service delivery status there? Shall every facility wait for a surprise visit? Or Govt. shall think some tool other than “SHARIF GOVERNANCE”?

Concerns on KP ‘Ehtesab’

Everything was going well until reports started coming in about the arrest of the father of the KP ruling party’s MPA Gul Sahib Khan in April 2015 in a land-grabbing case, and the subsequent arrests of ex-minister Liaqat Shabab and sitting minister for mines and minerals Ziaullah Afridi.

These arrests sent shockwaves through the political elite giving an idea of the powers resting with the Ehtesab Commission, its DG in particular. In the next couple of months 14 petitions lined up before the division bench of the Peshawar High Court (PHC), challenging various provisions of the EC Act 2014.

A larger bench of the PHC attended all 14 petitions in six sittings to confirm three constitutional concerns about the KP EC Act 2014. The first was whether the KP EC Act 2014 is in conflict with Articles 142 and 143 of the constitution while the NAB ordinance is in force. The second was whether the KP EC Act 2014 is in contravention of fundamental rights as protected in Articles 10A, 12 and 25 of the constitution. And the third was whether the provisions of the KP EC Act 2014 pass the reasonability test. On December 23, 2015, the PHC finally confirmed the above three questions in the negative – thereby protecting the Ehtisab Commission.

The KP Ehtesab Commission has witnessed three amendments to date. The first amendment was passed by the KP assembly reversing the absorption of the Anti-Corruption Establishment (ACE) into the Ehtesab Commission. The second amendment further empowered the commission and made the offenses under the commission non-bailable. The third and the most recent amendment has triggered a debate about the independence and authority of the commission when it comes to its intended function, prevention of corrupt practices and holding all public officers accountable.

The recent amendments seem to have inflicted quite some damage to the perception of the KP government’s intentions about an anti-corruption drive across the province. The resignation of the commission’s DG, after notifying the CM of his reservations on the proposed amendments, further strengthened the perception of mala fide intentions behind these amendments. It is important to see the nature of the amendments when it comes to the structure and functions of the commission. These amendments can broadly be categorized as: 1) redistribution of powers within the commission; 2) taking away powers from the commission, and 3) introducing political and executive influence.

With a few amendments, a directorate general has been created within the commission. The directorate will be headed by the DG. A further role of the commission and the directorate has also been defined with more clarity. Filing a reference and arresting an accused are two key stages for investigation. The respect and professionalism of an accused public office-holder are at the stake, and this process deserves a detailed assessment before making any decision.

Prior to the amendments, the DG of the commission was the sole authority that decided about filing a reference before the court and arresting an accused. However, the amendment in Section 37 recommended a time-bound decision on filing a reference by the majority of votes amongst the chief ehtesab commissioner, two commissioners, the DG and the prosecutor general. With regard to the arrests of the accused, now clause (ab) has been added under section 9 to empower the commission for granting approval of the DG for the arrest of any accused. Approval of the commission for the issuance of an arrest warrant has also been inserted in 36(5).

There are certain amendments that take away the few powers the commission has. The most important of these is the power Suo moto action against any corrupt practice. It also takes away the powers of the commission to set the salary, allowances and terms and conditions of its employees – including the DG and directors of all six wings of the directorate. After the amendment, all these powers now stand with the government, which can challenge the commission in recruiting a competent team to adequately meet its core business.

On the other hand, a legislative committee comprising five members each from the treasury and opposition benches has been given the authority to inquire into any allegation of abuse of authority or misconduct by the commissioners. However, the committee has to recommend a divisional bench of the PHC to remove the commissioner from office if found guilty.

Through some other amendments, the time limit for inquiry and investigation has been increased from the existing total 90 days to 120 days – where 90 days are for inquiry and 30 days for investigation. The conversion of an inquiry into the investigation is subject to the approval of the commission. Police powers are restricted to 30 days of investigation of the case. The custody of an accused has been reduced from 45 to 15 days. The chief secretary and speaker are required to be informed when a civil servant or MP are being arrested.

The first director general of the commission has resigned, citing four reasons for leaving. One of his concerns was about the interpretation of the act with regard to the role of the DG and commissioners. This concern has been adequately addressed and clarified through recent amendments. However, the former DG does not seem comfortable and convinced of the position of the DG after these amendments. Commissioners have also written to the governor in this regard.

The former DG’s other concerns include reversal on the absorption of the ACE and overlapping jurisdiction with NAB. A detailed mechanism is provided in the EC Act to settle the matter with federal agencies but this may not be very productive and effective. The DG’s dissatisfaction with the amendments is more descriptive than specifics.

Before the amendment is introduced in the provincial assembly, the KP government should deliberate further on this in the public domain and seek expert views on any provision that may adversely affect the government’s anti-corruption efforts.
The resignation of the director general has already caused a dent, and other directors may follow the suit if the new terms and conditions for their employment differ largely from what they were engaged in originally.

This was originally published in The News on Feb 14, 2016, http://www.thenews.com.pk/print/98169-Concerns-on-KP-ehtesab

Restructuring PEC

I had written this to the current PEC governing body members with my proposal on improving service quality and customer relations for Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC).


1. Change of Organisational Behaviour

As we have a new leadership in place, which I can feel is very active and trying to reform the institute. Along the process I will suggest to convert the current bureaucratic or typical Govt entity attitude to a public service institute with equal focus on customer care along with the implementation of regulatory framework.

At PEC, We need to define and train the PEC staff on its organisational Mission, Vision & Core Values as the Governing Board may agree on. Without putting everyone in the institute on same road to PEC’s Mission, Vision and professing the Core values, neither we are gonna change the working culture at PEC and nor we gonna help the public at large effectively. We will end up with day-to-day business and that’s all.

I have written a detailed email to another organisation in this subject and i can forward that to you if desired.


2. Segregating Customer & Regulatory Compliance Sections

By a simple & plain look at functions of PEC one can easily group it into 2 categories: 1) – Customer Services 2) Regulatory Enforcements

I am very hopeful that you will agree on these 2 groups of key functions of PEC and you will further also agree that a common organisation business style can not effectively address the both groups.

I recommend a serious discussion to fine tune the two groups and execute the functions of the two major groups accordingly. For the convenience, I try to list down a few of these :

1)- Customer Services
— Registration of Companies (Consultants/Contractors)
— Registration of Engineers ( Registered/Supervisory Engrs)
— Conduct of Engineering Practice Exam
— etc
2)- Regulatory Compliances
— Compliance to the Curriculum by institutes
— Accreditation of Engineering programs
— Compliance to Design codes by consultants
— Compliance to the worksite safety requirements
— etc

These are just for example to clear my point on distinction b/n two groups. However we can make a complete list to identify and segregate the areas.

Segregation of the two groups will help out further on training requirements and nature of training for both. Even future recruitments and qualifications/Backgrounds of recruits.


3. Communications

1 of the Key improvements required ASAP at PEC is its communication capacity to the customers. I will put aside my personal experience on communicating PEC and will move for recommendation.

it’s unfortunate the PEC officers never or very rare are approachable at the email address given at PEC website. Instead of giving access to every officer, i will suggest to separate a group of few dedicated communication officers, well trained on affairs and requirements of various customer services so they can be approachable and responsive at dedicated Telephone, Email & now in social Media Facebook/Twitter.

I understand the PEC offered contact numbers and email address of the officers. However, either these officers are non-responsive or the response rate is too low against the incoming traffic. I will appreciate if an audit of calls/emails received/responded is conducted and PEC’s response rate is assessed and be included in annual PEC performance report.

I will propose that the Governing body consider to have a dedicated communication team for its customer to deliver them a satisfactory service and relieve other officers to attend public queries, unless a specialized query require their attendance.

Unfortunately, Customers (Engrs, Consultants, Contractors) have absolutely no other place to go for the services except PEC and if the officers at PEC keep their mindset that finally these customers in any case have to approach same officers for the service, so they will keep taking advantage of being the only service centre and this called “Govt Monopoly”.

Governing body may also consider to outsource customer service to offer a competitive service provision or can consider rewards/punishments of its own service provision teams based on annual performance assessment.